Mar. 8th, 2019

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TEAL Center Fact Sheet No. 4: Metacognitive Processes

Metacognition is one’s ability to use prior knowledge to plan a strategy for approaching a learning task, take necessary steps to problem solve, reflect on and evaluate results, and modify one’s approach as needed. It helps learners choose the right cognitive tool for the task and plays a critical role in successful learning.

What Is Metacognition?
Metacognition refers to awareness of one’s own knowledge—what one does and doesn’t know—and one’s ability to understand, control, and manipulate one’s cognitive processes (Meichenbaum, 1985). It includes knowing when and where to use particular strategies for learning and problem solving as well as how and why to use specific strategies. Metacognition is the ability to use prior knowledge to plan a strategy for approaching a learning task, take necessary steps to problem solve, reflect on and evaluate results, and modify one’s approach as needed. Flavell (1976), who first used the term, offers the following example: I am engaging in Metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B; if it strikes me that I should double check C before accepting it as fact (p. 232).

Cognitive strategies are the basic mental abilities we use to think, study, and learn (e.g., recalling information from memory, analyzing sounds and images, making associations between or comparing/contrasting different pieces of information, and making inferences or interpreting text). They help an individual achieve a particular goal, such as comprehending text or solving a math problem, and they can be individually identified and measured. In contrast, metacognitive strategies are used to ensure that an overarching learning goal is being or has been reached. Examples of metacognitive activities include planning how to approach a learning task, using appropriate skills and strategies to solve a problem, monitoring one’s own comprehension of text, self-assessing and self-correcting in response to the self-assessment, evaluating progress toward the completion of a task, and becoming aware of distracting stimuli.
Read more... )
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Teaching Students to Read Metacognitively
A mini-lesson and anchor chart for showing early elementary students how to monitor their comprehension as they read.

By Brooke MacKenzie
Reading child

Comprehension is, of course, the whole point of reading. As proficient readers read, they make meaning, learn new information, connect with characters, and enjoy the author’s craft. But as students begin to transition in their skills from cracking the sound-symbol code to becoming active meaning makers, they do not always monitor their understanding of the text as they read or notice when they make errors.

There are several categories of errors that students tend to make as they read. They may insert words where they don’t belong, substitute words as they read (this tends to happen with smaller sight words—reading the as a), make phonetic errors, or omit words completely. They may also make fluency-related errors, such as not attending to punctuation, which can lead to confusion about which character is speaking, for example.

Sometimes a student’s error will change the meaning of the text, and other times it won’t. But it remains true that the fewer the errors, the greater the child’s comprehension will be.

When students actively monitor their comprehension, they catch themselves when they make an error and apply a strategy to get their understanding back on track. Monitoring comprehension is a critical skill for both students who are still learning to decode and those who have become proficient decoders but are not yet actively making meaning while they read. Read more... )
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A self-glazing apple pie that tastes as wonderful as it looks.

1 cup chopped pecans
1/2 cup firmly packed brown sugar
1/3 cup butter, melted
1 box of package refrigerated pie crusts (I prefer Pillsbury All Ready Pie Crust or you can make your own pie crust)
1 teaspoon flour
6 medium apples, sliced & peeled (I prefer Granny Smith and Braeburn apples)
1/4 cup sugar
2 tablespoons flour
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon
1/8 teaspoon nutmeg


Heat oven to 375°F
Using a 9-inch pie plate, combine pecans, brown sugar and butter; spread evenly over bottom of pan.
steps 1-3

Prepare pie crust according to package direction for a two-crust pie (flouring each side of crust).

Place bottom pie crust over pecan mixture in pan. Press crust down around sides of pan and sprinkle with 1 teaspoon flour.

steps 4-5
In large bowl, combine apples, sugar, flour, cinnamon and nutmeg. mix lightly. Spoon into pie crust-lined plate.

steps 6-8

Top with second pie crust, and flute. Cut 4-5 slits in top crust, for steam to escape. Place pie plate on cookie sheet and bake at 375° for 40-50 minutes or until crust is golden brown.

steps 9-10
Remove pie from oven, and cool on wire rack for 5 minutes. Place serving plate over pie and carefully invert hot pie. Remove pie plate. Some nuts may remain in pan, replace on pie with a knife
Cool at least 1 hour before serving.


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